Deep learning is based on the branch of machine learning, which is a subset of artificial intelligence. Since neural networks imitate the human brain and so deep learning will do. In deep learning, nothing is programmed explicitly. Basically, it is a machine learning class that makes use of numerous nonlinear processing units so as to perform feature extraction as well as transformation. The output from each preceding layer is taken as input by each one of the successive layers.
Deep learning models are capable enough to focus on the accurate features themselves by requiring a little guidance from the programmer and are very helpful in solving out the problem of dimensionality. Deep learning algorithms are used, especially when we have a huge no of inputs and outputs.
Since deep learning has been evolved by the machine learning, which itself is a subset of artificial intelligence and as the idea behind the artificial intelligence is to mimic the human behavior, so same is "the idea of deep learning to build such algorithm that can mimic the brain".